Honorary Doctorate Degrees, How Honorable Are They? Part III Of V

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A Brief History of the Honorary Degree

Oxford University, where the “honorary degree” claims its origins

In 1478, representatives from England’s Oxford University approached a young bishop named Lionel Woodville. At the time, Woodville was a man of great honor: he was not only the head of the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter, but enjoyed the distinction of being King Edward IV’s brother-in-law. Well-connected, wealthy, and of noble standing, he was just the kind of man that Oxford wanted to curry favor with.

At the behest of the university, a finely-dressed courrier was sent to deliver Woodville a doctorate degree. For the nobleman, all of Oxford’s strict academic requirements were excused; with the presentation of a piece of paper, he was swiftly and automatically declared the modern-day equivalent of a Ph.D. This marked the first “honorary” degree in history.

“It was clearly an attempt to honor and obtain the favor of a man with great influence,” writesone historian — and for Oxford, the move paid off. Shortly after awarding him the degree, Woodville was offered (and accepted) a post as the Chancellor of the University. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, prestigious institutions like Oxford would don hundreds of other men, all of whom were members of the noble elite, similar degrees. In 1642 alone, some 350 doctorates were doled out by Charles I — many of which went directly to members of his court.

Meanwhile, in North America, Harvard University was in the midst of promoting Increase Mather, an influential Puritan minister, to President of the University. In 1692, just days before his appointment, Harvard instantaneously bestowed Mather with a ‘Doctor of Sacred Theology’ — a degree for which other candidates had to study a minimum of 5 years to obtain. This was the beginning of a long, steady procession of honorary doctorates at America’s most prestigious institutions.

Between 1700 and 1900, more than 200 different types of degrees were awarded, ranging from B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. titles (which came with all the benefits of earned degrees), to the LL.D., which was strictly ornamental and was not meant to insinuate academic prowess. Nonetheless, recipients of the latter often still considered themselves deserving of the title: Benjamin Franklin, who received honorary LL.D. degrees from 7 universities (including Harvard and Yale), was known to strut around town pronouncing himself “Doctor Franklin,” and often requested others refer to him in a similar manner.

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Benjamin Franklin was among history’s early doctoral posers

Sooner or later, academics began to take issue with the honorary degree, and the haughty attitudes of those who’d been awarded them.

In 1889, Charles Foster Smith, a disgruntled man who’d actually earned his Ph.D., from Vanderbilt University, wrote a report bemoaning the practice of giving out honorary degrees. In it, he detailed that in a ten-year period alone, some 250 American universities had given out 3,728 degrees. He elaborates on his concerns:

“The mode in which honorary degrees are conferred in this country is a sham and a shame. It is so easy to get a degree so many men of slight acquisitions have obtained a degree — that it is now the way to apply for these honors. If the secret sessions of college corporations were made public, there would be an astonishing revelation of intimations and open requests and endorsements. Members of the faculties of colleges are constantly applied to lend their influence to secure a doctorate for this person or that.”

Under the assumption that they were entitled to honorary degrees, hoards of “esteemed” men wrote letters to elite universities requesting to be decreed “doctors.” Many — particularly those who sent sizable donations with their letters — were successful.

Despite mounting criticism that the honorary degree made a complete and utter mockery of higher education, the practice only continued to grow in popularity throughout the 20th century.

“Degrees” Come Easy for the Wealthy and Famous

Today, honorary degrees are a big business.

Over a period of three centuries, Yale University has awarded 2,805 of them. University of Pennsylvania has bestowed 1,722 — and as many as 56 in a single year. A representative in Brown University’s administrative office tells us they’ve given out somewhere around 2,030, averaging around 8 per year. But to truly understand to ballooning nature of honorary degrees, one needs look no further than Harvard University. Though the college only posts what it calls a “partial” list of its honorary degrees, the rate of increase there is in a league of its own:

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Zachary Crockett, Priceonomics; data via Harvard University

Of the 171 honorary degrees Harvard lists on its website (going all the way back to 1752), 110 (a whopping 64%) were awarded in the past 15 years. Whereas the school traditionally granted 2 to 3 honorary diplomas per year, it now routinely awards 9 to 10.

Nearly all modern-day honorary degrees awarded by universities are one of the following: Litt.D. (Doctor of Letters), L.H.D (Doctor of Humane Letters), Sc.D. (Doctor of Science), D.D. (Doctor of Divinity), D.Mus (Doctor of Music), or, most, commonly, LL.D. (Doctor of Laws). For recipients of these degrees, matriculation, residence, study, and the passing of examinations are bypassed.

However, these specially-categorized degrees — which are technically classified as honoris causa, Latin for “for the sake of the honor” — are not “real” degrees, and as such, come with limitations. Most importantly, recipients are generally discouraged from referring to themselves as “doctor,” and awarding universities will often make this clear on their websites with some variation of the following phrase: “Honorary graduates may use the approved post-nominal letters. It is not customary, however, for recipients of an honorary doctorate to adopt the prefix ‘Dr.’”

As it turns out though, recipients of honorary degrees have been known to adopt the “Dr.” title that comes with “real” academic scholarship.

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Author Maya Angelou, who was awarded over 50 honorary degrees from institutions around the world, often referred to herself as “Dr. Angelou” despite lacking a real doctorate degree. Similarly, software freedom activist Richard Stallman, recipient of 15 such degrees, routinely signs his emails “Dr. Richard Stallman,” and commands the same title when he gives talks, but holds no official Ph.D.

Combing through several Ivy League schools’ historical databases, it seems that honorary degrees are disproportionately awarded not to influential scientists, engineers, or historians, but to pop culture icons, big-name political figures, and wealthy businessmen.       

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Allergies, What Are They, What Are The Causes, How to Live With Them, And Do They Ever Get Better Over Time??? 25 Myth’s Of Allergies.(V Of V)

Lastly Two Major Questions

1. Does Rain Affect Allergies?

Falling Rain

Have you noticed that your ALLERGY symptoms seem to get worse when it rains?  This is a common experience for many people with allergies.  Let’s take a look at how humidity and precipitation can impact your comfort level this SPRING.

In general, wet and damp conditions are actually favorable for people with allergies.  That’s because humidity weighs pollen down and prevents it from spreading through the air.  Dry and windy days, on the other hand, tend to be hard on people with allergies because pollen can float through the air more easily.

But rain can have a negative impact on your allergies as well.  Rain drops will fracture pollen into minute particles that are then release into the air in higher concentrations.  These smaller pollen particles spread faster and are readily absorbed, causing more severe allergy symptoms.

Rain-dispersed pollen can also aggravate asthma symptoms when these tiny, moist particles create inflammation in the airway.  This phenomenon is known as thunderclap asthma.  People with allergic asthma may experience shortness of breath and difficulty breathing when it is raining outside.

Allergy-sufferers will want to avoid spending time outside on both windy and rainy days, especially during allergy season.  Keep the windows closed and be sure to remove wet clothing before going indoors.  Shower each night to rinse away pollen particles that cling to your hair and skin.  This will help minimize your exposure to allergens when it rains.

An especially rainy or humid season can also mean a spike in both mold and dust mite levels.  These allergens thrive in damp conditions both indoors and out.  One rainstorm isn’t likely to make a difference but if it has been raining or humid for a longer period of time, you’ll want to take extra precautions to minimize your exposure to dust mites and mold.

There are many factors that influence the allergy forecast.  Watch out for rainy days this spring to help keep your symptoms under control during allergy season.

Kevin Arnold

Kevin Arnold writes about allergies and asthma, travel and healthy living.  For more tips and information, check out all of his posts at WWW.PUREROOM.COM/HEALTHY_LIVING_BLOG.

2. Do Allergies Get Worst At Night?

Why Do Allergies Act Up at Night & How to Soothe Nighttime Allergies

Man in bed suffering from nighttime allergies

For people who suffer from allergies, the evening hours are often the most uncomfortable and symptomatic.

Seasonal allergies have a way of disrupting sleep and making individuals feel groggy and unproductive the next day. It is very difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep while experiencing nasal congestion, breathing problems, coughing, and mucous in the back of the throat. Therefore, it is common to toss and turn all night and start the new day feeling exhausted and fatigued.

Here is a discussion of why allergy attacks at night are common and what allergy sufferers can do to prevent and treat nighttime allergies.

Why Are Allergies Worse at Night?

It may surprise some people to learn that pollen levels are often highest during the nighttime hours. As the temperature drops after dark, pollen in the air settles from the day and finds its way back to the ground. Pillows that are old also tend to harbor dust mites, which are very allergenic. An old mattress may also be to blame for nighttime allergies, as well as sleeping with pets in the bed.

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Nighttime Triggers of Allergy Symptoms

Many allergy sufferers wonder what is happening in the environment that triggers their symptoms more prominently at night. Pollen, dust mites, and animal dander are the most common triggers for nighttime allergies and the symptoms they cause.

Runny nose is a very common nighttime allergy symptom, as well as nasal congestion that makes breathing through the nose very difficult. Coughing also keeps allergy sufferers up at night when mucous drains from the nasal cavity into the throat. People with nighttime allergies often complain about itchy and watery eyes that prevent them from getting a restful night’s sleep.

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How to Prevent Allergy Attacks at Night

Fortunately, there are some preventative measures that allergy sufferers can take before going to bed to avoid allergy attacks at night. In case indoor allergies are to blame, it is a good idea to toss out old pillows and buy new ones to eliminate the presence of dust mites and their waste.

To avoid outdoor pollen, make sure to close windows before going to bed so that is doesn’t seep inside. Also, change clothes and take a shower before going to bed so that outdoor allergens aren’t brought into bed. Make sure to wash sheets in hot water at least once per week for further dust mite protection, and set up beds for pets in a different room to reduce the amount of pet dander in the bedroom environment.

How to Ease Nighttime Allergies

Even with all these special precautions taken to avoid nighttime allergies, treatment may be necessary to ease the discomfort they cause after dark. If nighttime allergy symptoms are caused by sinus pain and pressure in the head, specially formulated headache treatments like Vanquish can reduce the pain and facilitate sleep.

Other nighttime treatment recommendations include steroid nasal sprays, antihistamines, and nasal decongestant sprays. It is always frustrating to have to get up in the middle of the night to treat allergies, but diagnosing the cause of the allergies and finding an effective treatment strategy can make the evening hours much more relaxing and peaceful.

 

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Honorary Doctorate Degrees, How Honorable Are They? Part II Of V

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The Value Of A Honorary Doctorate

For the Sake of the Honor

It all began at Harvard University in 1692, when the Ivy League school gave the first honorary degree in the United States to Puritan clergyman Increase Mather. However, honorary degrees had been granted for over 200 years before this (the University of Oxford gave out its first honorary degree in the 1470s). Then, the degree was given mainly to scholars.

For over three hundred years, U.S. colleges and universities have bestowed honorary degrees on people for their lasting impact on society – politicians, musicians, writers, actors, clergymen, corporate CEOs, sports figures and then some. Such diverse individuals as author Elie Wiesel, comedian Bill Cosby, and former heavyweight champion Mike Tyson have been awarded honorary degrees. But what does it all mean?

While they’re a nice recognition and probably look good hanging on the wall, honorary degrees are not ‘real’ degrees; in other words, being awarded an honorary degree is not the same as earning an actual doctorate. In fact, an honorary degree is a degree honoris causa, Latin for ‘for the sake of the honor’. They are not used to further one’s career, fatten one’s bank account or dress up one’s resume. If anything, honorary degrees draw more attention to the college or university bestowing the honor, since it ties them to the (usually famous or well-known) recipient.

Many schools award honorary degrees to their commencement speakers, though being chosen as a keynote speaker does not always mean that the individual will also be selected for the honorary award (this might be true when the commencement speaker is paid for his or her services). Nor are all honorary degree recipients commencement speakers. For instance, Princeton University keeps its list of recipients a secret until the graduation ceremony, with the university’s president typically delivering the commencement address.

Many schools present the degree to famous alumni. Honorary degree nominees can be named by individuals or faculty members. Recipients are ultimately chosen through a voting process by a school’s trustees or board of regents.

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A Practice Not Without Controversy

Perhaps the value of an honorary degree has been somewhat diminished by the sheer number handed out over time. Some institutions have presented well over a thousand such degrees in their history. And, as one would expect, a practice encompassing a large number of noted personas over a long period of time would not unfold without its share of controversy.

Perhaps one of the strangest but most humorous controversies involved Long Island University Southampton College. In 1996, the school awarded an honorary Doctor of Amphibious Letters to Kermit the Frog for his work in education and in raising environmental awareness. Even though there were those who did not agree with the idea of bestowing the honor on a puppet, Kermit accepted the award and did indeed give an acceptance speech.

In 2009, Arizona State University famously refused to give President Barack Obama an honorary degree, citing a lack of experience and absence of a qualifying body of work. The President delivered the university’s commencement speech that year. ASU is one of the few schools that do not use the same process to select speakers and honorary degree nominees.

In May 2011, there was yet another kerfuffle, this time between Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Tony Kushner and City University of New York. Deemed ‘anti-Israel’ and ‘a Jewish anti-Semite’ by a trustee of the university, CUNY at first voted to withhold Kushner’s honorary degree, but changed that vote after much criticism. Kushner later accepted the award.

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A Time-Honored, and Seemingly Timeless, Practice

Are all recipients truly deserving, or are their accomplishments grand enough to warrant such notice? Arguable, to say the least. Have individuals worthy of the honor been overlooked? Without a doubt. Have rules been in some cases bent to accommodate the recipients? Sometimes. In 2009, UCLA lifted a 37-year moratorium on honorary degrees to honor Japanese-American students of the university who, in February 1942, were sent to internment camps per orders of the federal government.

And has the practice been overdone? Maybe, but perhaps there are some individuals who simply deserve the recognition, even if it’s over and over. Take, for instance, Daisaku Ikeda of Japan, a Buddhist philosopher, founder of Soka University and president of Soka Gakkai International. Ikeda currently holds about 300 honorary degrees. (https://study.com/articles/Whats_the_Value_of_an_Honorary_Degree.html)

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Recipients Of Honorary Doctorates :

Bill Cosby – John Hopkins

Donald Trump – Le High University

Kerry Washington – George Washington University

John Legend – Howard University & University of Pennsylvania

Denzel Washington – University of Pennsylvania

Aretha Franklin – Princeton, Harvard & Yale

Morgan Freeman – Rhodes College, Boston University & Brown University

Kanye West – Art Institute of Chicago

Oprah Winfrey – Harvard

  1. Diddy – Howard University

Mike Tyson – Central State University

Albert Einstein:  and just about ever: Movie Star, Actor, Singer, TV Show Host, Pastor, President, Big Business Owner, Sports Player, and Know Person is the World Has a Honorary Doctorate  And too many more…

The Honorary Doctorate:

In its inception the Honorary Degree was a awarded for achievements that help the progression of society, achievements like: “The Theory Of Relativity” by Albert Einstein, overtime it was also given for wonderful achievement or great accomplishments. Today it’s relegated to being a kind gestures, and it’s given to any and everyone that does any and everything like “Donald Duck” and “Kermit The Frog.” It’s gotten so bad that today,  You can get one online if you pay: Around 40.00 as this online advertisement states:

Honorary Degree

Our Degrees are not academic Degree. All Degrees are church “Honorary Degrees” (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, h.c.).

 

Degree, Doctor Degree, Honorary Degree, Order your Degree, Doctorate Degree, Diplomas, Life Experience Degree

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All degrees cost around $ 40.00.

 

Honorary Degree as pdf by email

 

For only $15 UD Dollar with Paypal, we can send your Doctor Degree (Doctoral Degree, Doctorate Degree) as pdf file by email. Order your Degree here: → Buy Doctor Degree.

 

This practice is such a problem, and continues to be a tremendous issue and its outlined in great detail in these next two article:    

 

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So Why Do Colleges Give Out “Honorary” Degrees?

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By Zachary Crockett ·  ·

American rapper Pitbull shows off his honorary degree

Each Spring, thousands of American graduate students don fancy robes and walk across stages to accept their doctorate degrees. For most, the ceremony is the culmination of years of dedicated scholarship, hard work, emotional breakdowns, and tuition dues.

But for others present on commencement day, the struggle is not so real. Joining the students on stage, celebrities and business moguls — Mike Tyson, Kylie Minogue, Oprah, Ben Affleck, and Bill Gates among them — flock to college campuses to receive “honorary” doctorate degrees. Unlike the students, these luminaries are given a free pass: universities allow them to bypass all of the usual requirements. Though these degrees are more ornamental than functional, the practice of handing them out stems from a somewhat ignoble past.

For more than 500 years, the honorary degree has provided an opportunity for colleges to build relationships with the rich, famous, and well-connected, in hopes of securing financial donations and cheap publicity.

Continue to Part III Of VI

Allergies, What Are They, What Are The Causes, How to Live With Them, And Do They Ever Get Better Over Time??? 25 Myth’s Of Allergies.(IV Of V)

25 Common Allergy Myths

Allergy experts in clinical practice often spend a considerable amount of time counselling patients about nonsensical myths. In this section we debunk some of the worst misconceptions and allergy myths.

By Dr Adrian Morris

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1. Short haired dogs do not cause allergies

All dogs can cause allergies. It is the skin flakes (dander) and saliva that cause allergies and not the hair. Short haired female dogs do however tend to shed less dander.

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2. Goat’s milk is a good substitute in cow’s milk allergy

Goat’s milk has many similar casein proteins to cow’s milk, so can also trigger a reaction and is only tolerated in about 40% of cow’s milk allergic children.

3. Iodine allergic individuals should avoid all fish and shellfish

Fish do not contain significant amounts of iodine and will not cause problems in iodine allergic people.

4. Adrenaline injectors are dangerous and may damage your heart

Adrenaline (epinephrine) auto-injectors are life-saving in people with severe allergies to foods or insect stings. They are safe to inject into the muscle of the thigh as soon as possible in a severe allergic reaction. If administered by mistake, you may feel slightly agitated and your heart will race, but the effect will wear off.

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5. Your allergic reaction will get worse with each subsequent exposure

There is no predicting how you might react subsequently, a reaction may be exactly the same, it may be more severe or it may be less severe.

6. It is fine to give “a little bit” of egg or cow’s milk occasionally to build up tolerance

This is not true and dangerous advice in highly egg or milk allergic children.

7. If you are allergic to egg white you can eat the egg yolk

This is a dangerous practice, as there will be albumen proteins attached to the yolk.

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8. Children will outgrow their allergies

Some children will outgrown their allergies, but the majority will retain their allergies especially allergies to foods such as nuts and fish. At least 50% of allergies to pets, pollen and dust mites also persist into adult life.

 9. Allergies are all in the mind

Allergies are potentially life threatening reactions to common environmental substances and foods which result in allergic inflammation. Emotions can exacerbate symptoms, but are never the main cause.

10. Multiple food allergies are common

Fortunately food allergies are usually limited. Up to 4 food types are usual with some cross-reactions to unrelated food families. For example, Latex allergy sufferers may react with oral allergies to kiwi, avocado, banana and chestnut.

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11. Allergy testing is a waste of time because a person will probably react to everything

Allergy testing is accurate and testing should be done after carefully discussing the person’s symptoms and medical history. Most allergic people will react to a few allergens which once identified can then be avoided.

12. Allergy testing is dangerous and should not be performed in young children

Occasionally skin testing for allergies can trigger a slight skin reaction or wheezing, but this is very rare. Blood RAST testing for allergies is safer in highly allergic people. Children can and should be allergy tested from 4 months of age if an allergy is suspected.

13. Desensitisation to allergies is hocus-pocus

Injection (SIT) or Sublingual (SLIT) desensitisation immunotherapy is highly effective and the only way of curing allergies to Grass Pollen, House dust mites and Insect Venom. Remember that EPD (Enzyme Potentiated Desensitisation) is not effective.

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14. Indoor house plants and flowers cause allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is usually triggered by outdoor grass and tree pollens. Dull wind-pollinated plants and grasses cause more allergies than brightly coloured outdoor insect-pollinated flowers. However indoor cut flowers such as Lilies give off brightly coloured pollens and can cause conjunctivitis symptoms in sensitised individuals.

15. Building dust causes allergic rhinitis

It is the powdered faecal pellets of House dust mites and Cockroaches that cause allergies and not the dust particles or sand grains.

16. If you have allergies you are better off living in a desert or dry climate

Allergy provoking plants such as grasses, weeds, olive and mesquite trees thrive in dry semi-desert environments and allergies may actually be worse.

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17. Intentionally exposing yourself to pets can cure allergies

If allergic to pets, your allergies will be provoked by each exposure and this will make matters worse. However some people develop tolerance to their pet with time.

18. Milk and wheat allergies are common in adults

Cow’s milk allergy occurs in some children but is usually outgrown by age 5 years; wheat allergy starting in adulthood is very rare.

19. People with sinus and ear problems should avoid milk

Sinus problems and chest problems are not provoked by cow’s milk allergy. Watery post nasal mucus often feels perceivably thicker when mixed with cow’s milk during meals and therefore increases awareness of the mucus

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20. Food allergic people usually react to strawberries and tomato

The common food allergies in children are cow’s milk, wheat, egg, fish and peanuts, while adults react to fish, shellfish, peanuts and nuts. Strawberries and Tomato contain histamine so may provoke pseudo-allergies if eaten in excess.

21. Food allergies cause hyperactivity

Food allergies cannot trigger hyperactivity. Children with ADDH (hyperactivity) may become more active (“sugar rush”) after consuming artificially coloured sweets and junk foods, this is not an allergy.

22. Asthma inhalers can make your allergies worse and you should rather use breathing exercises (Buteyko)

Asthma is due to inflamed airways, breathing exercises will not clear this inflammation, only low-dose steroid inhalers can do this and control the asthma. Breathing exercises may have a complementary effect but it’s the airway inflamation that needs attention in asthma.

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23. Antihistamines will loose their effect if taken continuously and will then be ineffective if you have a severe allergic reaction

Antihistamines can safely be taken for prolonged periods and do not become less effective. However some people do develop an element of Tachyphylaxis or tolerance, so it is best to occasionally change the band of antihistamine.

24. Steroid creams are dangerous, causing skin thinning in eczema and should not be applied to children’s skin

Steroid creams are the only effective treatment for clearing eczema and will have no adverse effect if use for short periods of up to a week at a time. Once cleared of eczema, the skin should be continuously protected with a moisturising ointment.

25. The MMR (measles, mumps & rubella) vaccine should be avoided in children with egg allergy

The MMR vaccine contains no hens egg protein and is safe to give to egg allergic children. But the Influenza vaccine and Yellow Fever vaccines are produced on hens eggs, and are contraindicated in severe egg allergy.

Continue To V Of V

Honorary Doctorate Degrees, How Honorable Are They? Part I Of V

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Honorary Degree

An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa (“for the sake of the honor”) or ad honorem (“to the honor”), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive …” Sadly there is very little honor in a Honorary Doctorate Degree because of the easy access, to every celebrity from Michael Jackson to  Mike Tyson, that’s presented by any and every University across the country and around the world. This practice is a huge and a big problem and its bigger than you can ever imagine, it’s so big that the academic world: crying foul, as expressed in this article:  “While institutions of higher education have been criticized for awarding honorary doctorates to non-graduates, it hasn’t stopped them from honoring accomplished musicians, artists, athletes, and actors for years.

Many celebrities on our list hold not one, but two or even three honorary doctorates from some of the most prestigious universities in the world.”

To the average honorary degree recipient, most receiver are accomplished celebrity, athlete, or star, at the surface it seems like this is a good practice to reward these individuals, because it honors their accomplishments.   Also for the famous individuals, It might feel good for the receivers of the degree to get a honorary degree, but this practice it doesn’t consider the students in the toiling in the classroom for the better part of 10+ years, working very hard for on the same degree.  

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When we consider the academic workload we see that there is a huge gulf of differences between, academic earned degrees and honorary presented degrees, and once again,  “it’s just not fair” to allow anyone to just haphazardly pass out the degree to the top only one percent (1%) of society earns and or million and billionaires. Also there the other problem, the vast amount of individuals receiving these honorary degrees.  The university’s pass them out like they are “party favors”, there is little or no criteria for receiving one, and lastly the recipients have to show very little skill sets, to be bestowed the honor. Case and point; the average person when you go to the doctor, you will be amidst if you learn that they have a Honorary Degree, and you would not allow a Doctor with a the honorary medical degree to examine and request medication for you? Nor would you let a surgeon with a honorary degree in surgical perform an operation on you?  No, because of the skill difference, the knowledge it requires, and proficiency to perform in these jobs.

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These jobs or career show a blatant, difference in skill sets of the academics vs the honorary degrees, but suppose we look at other jobs, like teaching, lecturing, or preaching.  Are these skills so easily transferable, so that we can give the preacher or pastor a honorary degree, and we believe that they are full prepared to perform, exactly like or equal to their academic counterparts?  Also No, the only way you can be prepared as a academic, you have to go through the same process as a academic. Moreover it’s not only a bad idea to give one individual a degree, without doing any academic work and expect the one doing the academic work to be OK with it.  It’s not only a bad idea but it’s also offensive to a academic, to call yourself a doctor and not have all the credentials, and academic work.

Having College degree, affords the holder, all the rights and privileges that no other contracted or certified accomplishment does, such as:

  • The “privileges” include putting the degree on your curriculum vitae so you can get jobs requiring a degree;

  • The obligations include honesty about the subject matter in which you are supposed to have some expertise.

 

So without the proper backing as a academic has these honorary degree are just “piece of paper”. However academics degree is given prominence and referred as “sheepskin” The history of this statement is: “Most diplomas and certification documents today are printed on archival paper produced from treated pulp or rag (cotton). If you have a diploma that is fairly old, it could be made with sheepskin or parchment.” (Dict.com)

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With a earned academic degree, many doors and opportunity open, also there is a form of reverence and respect given, when the holder, opens their mouth, people believe something intelligent will precede.  They have a different level of prestige, with academic achievement. This may be one reason, why most professionals desire to have one, and like it when they receive a honorary degree, because doctorate’s will add a person’s  legitimacy to life, career, that goes beyond the academic world.

 

There is no “pomp and circumstances” of an Honorary degree they have none of the rights nor the privileges of any academic achievement, nor the respect.  In this blog I will explain, How much honor a honorable degree holds, The Black church and the Honorary Degree Controversy, and who actually benefits from the idea of the Honorable Doctorate Degree!!!          

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Honorary Doctorate Degrees Overview

To be considered for an honorary doctorate degree, there are specific criteria that individuals must meet, and there are a variety of doctorate degrees that they may be awarded. There are also many non-honorary doctorate degree options that require advanced education.

Recipients of honorary doctorate degrees: do not earn the degree through academic achievements; rather they receive these awards based on generous and altruistic actions or lifetime accomplishments that benefit a community, nation, or humanity in general. Some schools allow candidates to apply for consideration for the degree, while others require nomination by a third party. Each university that confers honorary degrees establishes its own criteria for acceptance.

Recipients may receive more than one honorary degree, but never from the same school twice. A candidate does not necessarily have to be an alumnus of the awarding school, though many schools prefer to recognize their own graduates or individuals who have made a contribution to the school. Beneficiaries of the prized degree may use the title of ‘Doctor’ that the degree confers, although they have not completed a doctoral program.

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Degree Criteria

While many colleges and universities provide their own strict criteria for honorary candidates, typically an honorary degree may only be given to an individual with a sustained lifetime achievement, rather than a group or for a single contribution. Public universities do not allow faculty members or employees of the school to be nominated for the degree, though private universities may not carry the same restriction. Candidacy for the degree often represents a school’s prominent vocation or pursuit. However, many institutions put more emphasis on the prolonged bearing of an individual’s accomplishment.

A few schools have age restrictions or require the honoree to be present at the time the degree is conferred. Some schools allow honorary doctorate degrees to be awarded posthumously, and the degree may be accepted by the honoree’s family or colleagues.

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Honorary Degree Types

Depending on the achievement, schools may present different types of honorary doctorate degrees. Some schools may offer only a Doctor of Philosophy degree, while others bestow a degree based on the accomplishments of the recipient. A few examples include:

  • Doctor of Humane Letters, acknowledging academic distinction
  • Doctor of Laws, awarded to professionals in the field of law
  • Doctor of Science, recognizing revolutionary scientific research and discovery
  • Doctor of Fine Arts, conferred primarily to musicians, actors, architects, and artists
  • Doctor of Divinity, bestowed upon exceptional religious figures

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Degree Selection Process

Based on the type of honorary doctorate degree being awarded, the school’s provost, chancellor, or honorary committee forms a selection panel to review nominations. Candidates or nominating parties typically must submit a minimum of a nomination form and biography by a specified deadline.

The selection panel reviews all documentation and presents their recommendations to the governing faculty, board of trustees, or university president. The school notifies accepted honorees and confers the degrees during regular commencement ceremonies. Many universities also expect a sizable donation from honorary degree recipients.

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Other Doctoral Degree Types

Individuals who are looking to earn a doctoral degree through advanced education may consider a research-based or professional doctoral degree. Some of the options include:

  • Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.): This degree is available in a wide range of subjects and focuses on academic research. Program length varies by subject and by student.
  • Doctor of Theology (Th.D.): This degree is available for individuals who are interested in advanced studies in religion-related subjects.
  • Doctor of Education (Ed.D.): This is the terminal degree for educators. Program lengths vary, but usually take at least three years of study.
  • Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.): These professional degrees are for aspiring physicians and take four years of study to complete.
  • Juris Doctor (J.D.): Individuals who want to become lawyers complete a three-year program to earn this degree.

Honorary doctorate degrees are awarded by postsecondary institutions for lifetime achievement. There are also doctoral programs available for those who want to conduct advanced academic or professional studies.  (https://study.com/articles/What_are_Honorary_Doctorate_Degrees.html)

Continue to Part II Of VI

Allergies, What Are They, What Are The Causes, How to Live With Them, And Do They Ever Get Better Over Time??? 25 Myth’s Of Allergies.(III Of V)

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Diagnosis

The doctor will ask the patient questions regarding symptoms, when they occur, how often, and what seems to cause them. They will also ask the person with symptoms whether there is a family history of allergies, and if other household members have allergies.

The doctor will either recommend some tests to find out which allergen is causing symptoms or refer the patient to a specialist.

Below are some examples of allergy tests:

  • Blood test: This measures the level of IgE antibodies released by the immune system. This test is sometimes called the radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
  • Skin prick test: This is also known as puncture testing or prick testing. The skin is pricked with a small amount of a possible allergen. If the skin reacts and becomes itchy, red, and swollen, it may mean an allergy is present.
  • Patch test: A patch test can identify eczema. Special metal discs with very small amounts of a suspected allergen are taped onto the individual’s back. The doctor checks for a skin reaction 48 hours later, and then again after a couple of days.

The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology can help you find a certified allergist.

Even if the patient knows what triggers the allergy, the doctor will carry out tests to determine which particular substance is causing symptoms.

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Living with Allergies

Treatment

The most effective treatment and management of an allergy is avoidance of the allergen.

However, sometimes it is not possible to completely avoid an allergen. Pollen, for example, is constantly floating in the air, especially during hay fever season.

Medications

Drugs can help treat the symptoms of an allergic reaction, but they will not cure the allergy. The majority of allergy medications are over-the-counter (OTC). Before taking a particular type of medication, speak to a pharmacist or doctor.

  • Antihistamines: These block the action of histamine. Caution is recommended, as some antihistamines are not suitable for children.
  • Decongestants: These can help with a blocked nose in cases of hay fever, pet allergy, or dust allergy. Decongestants are short-term medications.
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists, or anti-leukotrienes: When other asthma treatments have not worked, anti-leukotrienes can block the effects of leukotrienes. These are the chemicals that cause swelling. The body releases leukotrienes during an allergic reaction.
  • Steroid sprays: Applied to the inside lining of the nose, corticosteroid sprays help reduce nasal congestion.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is also known as hyposensitization. This type of therapy rehabilitates the immune system. The doctor administers gradually increasing doses of allergens over a period of years.

The aim is to induce long-term tolerance by reducing the tendency of the allergen to trigger IgE production.

Immunotherapy is only used to treat severe allergies.

Treatment for anaphylaxis

The EpiPenThe EpiPen is one example of an epinephrine injector. They can be vital for stopping anaphylactic reactions.

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. The patient may require resuscitation, including airway management, supplemental oxygen, intravenous fluids, and close monitoring.

The person experiencing anaphylaxis will need an injection of adrenaline into the muscle. Antihistamines and steroids are often used alongside the adrenaline injection.

After the patient has been stabilized, doctors may recommend remaining in hospital under observation for up to 24 hours to rule out biphasic anaphylaxis. Biphasic anaphylaxis is the recurrence of anaphylaxis within 72 hours with no further exposure to the allergen.

Patients who have had severe allergic reactions should carry an epinephrine autoinjector with them, such as the EpiPen, EpiPen Jr, Twinject, or Anapen.

Many doctors and health authorities advise patients to wear a medical information bracelet or necklace with information about their condition.

How to prevent allergies

There is no way to prevent an allergy. However, it is possible to limit symptoms.

Even though treatments can help alleviate allergy symptoms, patients will need to try to avoid exposure to specific allergens. In some cases, this is not easy. Avoiding pollen in late spring and summer is virtually impossible, and even the cleanest houses have fungal spores or dust mites.

If you have friends or family with pets, avoiding them might be difficult. Food allergies can be challenging to manage because traces of allergens can appear in unlikely meals. However, being vigilant about checking food packages can be a key way to avoid consuming certain allergens.

Make sure you receive proper allergy testing and know what substances to avoid.

“Your allergies are getting worse,” here’s why

MAY 11, 2017 PROVIDENCE HEALTH TEAM

Itchy eyes and a runny nose signal this time of year—allergy season. But have you noticed something new this year? Are your allergies worse than last year? Does it seem like they’ve been getting worse every year? If so, you’re not imagining it.

Seasonal allergies, also known as hay fever or allergic rhinitis, are more common than ever, and there’s a spike in the number of people reporting them for the first time.

Some symptoms are due to environmental factors, while others are caused by conditions at home. No matter the source, there are things you can do to alleviate the misery. Here are the top culprits making your allergies worse each year, and ways to find relief.

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Climate Change

Climate change is a top reason for awful allergy symptoms that last longer. As the planet’s median temperature and CO2 levels rise, plants bloom earlier and for longer periods of time, thus making “pollen season” worse. If itching and sneezing are too much to handle, try one of the many effective over-the-counter antihistamines.

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Weather

Dry, sunny and windy days often signal the onset of the sneezing and itching. These environmental conditions are ideal for trees to release pollen, which is then blown into and around your eyes and nose. Even in winter, a drastic temperature change can cause  symptoms that seem like allergic rhinitis. You can check the National Allergy Bureau website for current pollen counts in your area and stay indoors on high-pollen-count days. Use a household humidifier to protect sensitive tissues and rinse out your nasal cavity with a saline solution. We wrote about this in a recent blog post.

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Stress

Most people understand the negative effects of stress on their health, but there is also a connection between stress and allergies. Stress causes inflammation, which tends to make tissues more susceptible to irritants. Furthermore, stress hormones stimulate the production of blood proteins (IgE) that cause allergic reactions, according to a study conducted at the University of Mississippi. If you’re under stress and experiencing bad allergies, make a list of your stressors and take steps to reduce them. Regular exercise and adequate sleep are great ways to boost your overall health and cut allergy symptoms.

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Beer and wine

Alcohol can worsen the symptoms of hay fever, although you don’t likely have an allergy to alcohol itself. It’s the histamines in alcoholic beverages that usually cause symptoms. You may also have an underlying allergy to the wheat or preservatives in beer and wine. Prevent symptoms by sticking to grain-free booze like vodka, tequila or rum. Avoid drinks with added sulfites, flavors or carbonation. To be certain of what’s triggering your sneezing and itching, ask your medical provider for an allergy test.

If your allergy symptoms are interfering with your daily life, it’s time to see a health care provider to get tested for allergies.

Continue to IV Of V

I Need Glasses, A Guide To Buying The Perfect Pair Of Glasses, Part III Of III

Image result for Whats New In Prescription Glasses High-Definition Eyeglass Lenses

Whats New In Prescription Glasses

High-Definition Eyeglass Lenses

 On This Page: Free-form lenses Wavefront lenses Are you a candidate? Cost of high-definition lenses

Do you have 20/20 vision when you wear your glasses but still feel dissatisfied with how you see? You might benefit from high-definition lenses.

Sometimes, higher-order aberrations can affect your vision, even if your prescription eyeglasses fully correct your nearsightednessfarsightedness and/or astigmatism. These aberrations may be due to the optical characteristics of your eyes or can be caused by the optical limitations of conventional eyeglass lenses.

But there’s good news! Recent advances in lens manufacturing have made possible new high-definition eyeglass lenses that correct these aberrations, potentially giving you sharper vision than you’ve ever had before with eyeglasses. These lenses are designed to provide sharper vision in all lighting conditions and reduce glare for nighttime driving and other night vision tasks.

Many brands of high-definition eyeglass lenses currently are available, including high-definition versions of high-index lensesprogressive lenses and photochromic lenses.

Keep in mind that for the best vision and comfort, all high-definition lenses should include anti-reflective (AR) coating to eliminate distracting reflections.

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Free-Form Lenses

The most popular type of high-definition eyeglass lenses are called free-form lenses. The term “free-form” refers to an advanced manufacturing process that reduces higher-order aberrations such as spherical aberration that occur in eyeglass lenses created with traditional eyeglass lens manufacturing tools and processes.

High-definition lenses are designed to provide sharper vision in all conditions and reduced glare for nighttime driving.
High-definition lenses are designed to provide sharper vision in all conditions and reduce glare for nighttime driving.

With free-form lenses (also called digital high-definition lenses), the fabrication of the lenses from wearer’s eyeglass prescription is optimized with computer-controlled surfacing equipment that is much more precise than conventional tools.

In fact, free-form technology can surface lenses in power increments of 0.01 diopter (D), compared with 0.125 to 0.25 D increments of conventional eyeglass lens tooling.

The fabrication of some digital, free-form lenses also takes into account how the lenses are positioned in front of the wearer’s eyes when in the eyeglass frame, to provide the most accurate lens power and the sharpest vision possible.

Other factors that may be considered in the lens customization process include the angle between the eye and the back surface of the lens in different gaze positions (for example, when the wearer is looking off to the side rather than straight through the center of the lens), the frame size and the position of the wearer’s pupil within the frame outline.

With these and possibly other factors taken into account during lens design and fabrication, high-definition eyeglass lenses offer an unprecedented degree of customization and may reduce or eliminate certain higher-order aberrations.

The precisely made and personalized surfaces of high-definition lenses may help reduce aberrations that limit field of view and cause starbursts, halos and comet-shaped distortions of lights at night.

The result is that high-definition lenses may provide sharper image quality, better peripheral vision, improved contrast sensitivity and less glare at night.

Popular single vision high-definition eyeglass lenses include:

  • Essilor 360 DS (Essilor of America)
  • Hoya NuLux EP (Hoya Vision Care)
  • Shamir Autograph II SV (Shamir Insight)
  • Clarlet Individual (Carl Zeiss Vision)

Popular progressive high-definition lenses for correcting presbyopia include:

  • Hoyalux iD MyStyle (Hoya Vision Care)
  • Seiko Supercede (Seiko Optical Products of America)
  • Shamir Autograph II (Shamir Insight)
  • Varilux Physio DRx (Essilor of America)
  • Sola HDV (Carl Zeiss Vision)
  • Zeiss Progressive Individual 2 (Carl Zeiss Vision)

Because creating high-definition lenses requires additional information beyond what is recorded on your eyeglass prescription, your optician usually will take additional measurements when you choose your eyeglass frames.

Sometimes, a proprietary measuring device is used for fitting and fabricating a specific brand of free-form, high-definition lenses.

One example is the Zeiss i.Terminal 2, a photo-capture system that automatically measures several fitting parameters — including the distance between the wearer’s pupils (PD), fitting height, tilt of the frame (pantoscopic angle) and distance between the back of the lenses and the front of the eyes (back vertex distance) — to optimize the performance of Carl Zeiss Vision’s Individual brand of customized high-definition lenses.

Another example is the Visioffice 2 system from Essilor. This second generation, 3D patient measuring device provides eye care professionals an accurate, precise and consistent way to prescribe and fit high-definition eyeglass lenses that are personalized for each patient’s specific visual needs and frame choice, according to the company. The Visioffice 2 also features a frame selection module that enables patients to easily compare how they look wearing up to eight different frame styles.

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Wave-front Lenses

Some lens manufacturers have introduced an even more customized type of high-definition eyeglass lenses called wave-front lenses.

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If one of your eyes was blue and the other was brown, what would you do about it?
Wear color contacts to make them both the same color.Nothing.

Wavefront lenses are created with the help of the same sophisticated technology used to measure the optics of the eye prior to custom, wavefront-guided LASIK eye surgery: A computerized instrument projects uniform light waves into the eye, which reflect off the retina, and the returning “wavefront” of light is analyzed to evaluate all optical imperfections — not just refractive errors, but higher-order aberrations as well.

In custom LASIK, these wavefront measurements are used to program the excimer laser to reshape the front surface of the eye. In wavefront eyeglass lenses, the measurements drive a computer-controlled manufacturing process that creates customized, high-definition lenses.

The first brand of wavefront eyeglass lenses introduced in the United States was iZon High Resolution Lenses, manufactured by Ophthonix.

According to the company’s website, in simulated nighttime driving tests (55 mph in glare conditions), subjects wearing iZon High Resolution Lenses were able to detect, recognize and react to a pedestrian walking alongside the road an average of 20 feet sooner than drivers wearing conventional eyeglass lenses.

Besides improving night vision, iZon lenses also helped correct lingering vision problems following LASIK and other refractive eye surgery, the company said.

But only a limited number of optometrists and ophthalmologists prescribed iZon wavefront lenses, and in October 2012, Ophthonix announced it was ceasing operations after 11 years of business.

In 2011, Carl Zeiss Vision introduced a brand of wavefront high-definition lenses in the United States called i.Scription by Zeiss. Like iZon lenses, i.Scription by Zeiss lenses are designed to correct higher-order aberrations and provide sharper vision than regular eyeglass lenses.

According to the company, i.Scription by Zeiss lenses also help wearers see better in low light conditions and experience improved contrast and color vision.

In order to create i.Scription by Zeiss wavefront lenses, measurements of your eyes are performed by your eye care professional with the company’s proprietary i.Profiler Plus — a three-in-one automated device that measures refractive error, corneal topography and higher-order aberrations. Wavefront data gathered by the i.Profiler Plus are then sent to a Zeiss optical lab to fabricate the custom-made high-definition lenses.

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Are You A Candidate For High-Definition Lenses?

Virtually anyone who wears eyeglasses is a good candidate for high-definition eyeglass lenses, but individuals with higher eyeglass prescriptions may notice greater benefits than people with only mild prescriptions.

Perhaps one of the best indicators that high-definition eyeglass lenses might be a good choice for you is if your optometrist or ophthalmologist says you have healthy eyes and 20/20 vision, but you are bothered by glare or your vision seems indistinct.

If you are dissatisfied with the clarity of your eyesight with your current glasses, ask your eye care professional if high-definition eyeglass lenses might provide sharper vision.

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Cost Of High-Definition Lenses

Because of the sophisticated technology used to design and fabricate free-form and wavefront lenses and the added time and equipment required to fit them, expect to pay up to 25 to 30 percent more for high-definition eyeglass lenses, compared with conventional lenses of the same material and design.

Though high-definition lenses cost more than conventional eyeglass lenses, many people who try them — particularly wearers who’ve been frustrated by a lack of crisp vision with glasses in the past — find free-form and wave-front lenses produce a noticeable improvement in clarity and comfort.

In Conclusion:

Today Glasses are for everyone,  from the teacher with eye issues, to the movie star, who wants to go incognito, and just like everybody in in the market for a pair.  So if you are in the market to update look, or you want to enjoy a new pair of High Definition glasses, here.  You see glasses have gone from, Clark Kent horn-rims to Hollywood fab,  in a matter of 40 years and now and when shopping for glasses, you have a multitude of questions to answer, like: what type of  frames  do you want: designer, or not? what designs fits your face? what lenses do you like? transition or H.D.(Wave-front) or (free-forms)? or both H.D. Transition? Anti-refection or not?  Would you like a multi-focal? line or no line? The list goes on.  So I hope this blog helps you break through the chaos, and makes your next glasses buying experience, your best glasses buying experience.       

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Allergies, What Are They, What Are The Causes, How to Live With Them, And Do They Ever Get Better Over Time??? 25 Myth’s Of Allergies.(II Of V)

What is an allergy?

Man blows nose outsideAllergies occur when the immune system overreacts to ordinarily harmless substances.

Allergies are a very common overreaction of the immune system to usually harmless substances.

When a person with an allergy comes into contact with an allergen, the allergic reaction is not immediate. The immune system gradually builds up sensitivity to the substance before overreacting.

The immune system needs time to recognize and remember the allergen. As it becomes sensitive to the substance, the immune system starts making antibodies to attack it. This process is called sensitization.

Sensitization can take a few days or several years. In many cases, the sensitization process is not completed. The patient experiences some symptoms but not a full allergy.

Allergies may also be seasonal. For example, hay fever symptoms can peak between April and May, as the pollen count in the air is much higher.

A study published in JAMA Pediatrics reported that food allergies in children cost the U.S. economy nearly $25 billion annually.

The number of people worldwide with allergies is increasing.

 

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Symptoms

An allergic reaction causes inflammation and irritation. The signs and symptoms depend on the type of allergen. Allergic reactions may occur in the gut, skin, sinuses, airways, eyes, and nasal passages.

Allergic reactions may be confused for other conditions. Hay fever, for example, creates similar irritations to the common cold but the causes are different.

Below is a range of various triggers and the symptoms they regularly cause in people who are allergic.

Dust and pollen

  • blocked nose
  • itchy eyes and nose
  • runny nose
  • swollen and watery eyes
  • cough

Skin reactions

  • flaking
  • itching
  • peeling
  • rashes

Food

  • vomiting
  • swollen tongue
  • tingling in the mouth
  • swelling of the lips, face, and throat
  • stomach cramps
  • shortness of breath
  • rectal bleeding, mainly in children
  • itchiness in the mouth
  • diarrhea

Insect stings

  • wheezing
  • swelling at the site of the sting
  • a sudden drop in blood pressure
  • itchy skin
  • shortness of breath
  • restlessness
  • hives, a red and very itchy rash that spreads across the body
  • dizziness
  • cough
  • chest tightness
  • anxiety
  • possible anaphylaxis

Medication:

  • wheezing
  • swollen tongue, lips, and face
  • skin rash
  • itchiness
  • possible anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a quickly escalating, serious allergic reaction that sets in rapidly. It can be life-threatening and must be treated as a medical emergency.

This type of allergic reaction presents several different symptoms that can appear minutes or hours after exposure to the allergen. If the exposure is intravenous, onset is usually between 5 to 30 minutes. A food allergen will take longer to trigger anaphylactic reaction.

Researchers reported in The Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology that the most commonly affected areas in anaphylaxis are the skin and respiratory system.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

  • hives all over the body, flushing, and itchiness
  • swollen tissues
  • a burning sensation
  • swelling of the tongue and throat.
  • a possible blue tint to the skin from lack of oxygen
  • a runny nose
  • shortness of breath and wheezing
  • hoarseness
  • pain when swallowing
  • cough
  • a drop in blood pressure that can speed up or slow down the heart rate
  • abdominal cramps
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • loss of bladder control
  • pelvic pain similar to uterine cramps
  • coronary artery spasm
  • low blood pressure leading to high or low heart rate
  • dizziness and fainting

Recognizing these symptoms can be crucial to receiving timely treatment.

 

Causes Of Allergies

Causes

A particular antibody called immunoglobin (IgE) causes allergic reactions. Antibodies are released to combat foreign and potentially harmful substances in the body.

IgE is released to destroy the allergen and causes the production of chemicals that trigger the allergic reaction.

One of these chemicals is called histamine. Histamine causes tightening of the muscles in the airways and the walls of blood vessels. It also instructs the lining of the nose to produce more mucus.

Risk factors

The following can be risk factors for developing allergies:

The most common allergens

Dog and cat friendsAnimal dander is a very common allergen.

Potential allergens can appear almost anywhere.

Any food can theoretically cause an allergy. Specific components of food can also trigger allergic reactions, such as gluten, the protein found in wheat. The eight foods most likely to cause allergies are:

  • eggs, especially egg-white
  • fish
  • milk
  • nuts from trees
  • peanuts
  • wheat
  • soy
  • shellfish

Other allergens include:

  • animal materials, such as dust mite excrement, wool, fur, dander, or skin flakes, as well as Fel d 1, a protein found in cat saliva
  • medications, such as penicillin, salicylates, and sulfonamides
  • foods such as corn, celery, pumpkin, sesame, and beans
  • insect stings, including wasp and bee sting venom, mosquito stings, and fire ants.
  • insect bites from horseflies, blackflies, fleas, and kissing bugs
  • cockroaches, caddis and lake flies, midges, and moths
  • plant pollens from grass, trees, and weeds
  • household chemicals
  • metals, such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc
  • latex

Continue To III Of V

I Need Glasses, A Guide To Buying The Perfect Pair Of Glasses, Part II Of III

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How To Choose The Best Lenses For Your Glasses

The lenses you choose for your eyeglasses — even more than frames — often will determine how happy you are with your eyewear.

And buying eyeglass lenses is not an easy task. In fact, in a recent issue, Consumer Reports magazine said, “There are so many choices for lenses and coatings, it’s easy to be confused about what’s worth buying.”

This buying guide will help you cut through the hype about different types of eyeglass lenses and help you choose lenses and coatings that offer the best features and value for your needs.

Why Choosing The Right Eyeglass Lenses Is So Important

When buying eyeglasses, the frame you choose is important to both your appearance and your comfort when wearing glasses. But the eyeglass lenses you choose influence four factors: appearance, comfort, vision and safety.

Woman who is happy with her oval-shaped glasses

Eyeglass lens thickness is determined in part by the size and style of the frame you choose. For thinner lenses, choose smaller, round or oval frames. Also, plastic frames hide edge thickness better.

A common mistake people often make when buying eyeglasses is not spending enough time considering their choices of eyeglass lens materials, designs and coatings.

This article gives you the basics you need to know to buy eyeglasses lenses wisely.

The following information applies to all prescription lenses for glasses — whether you need single vision lenses to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness, and/or astigmatism, or you need progressive lenses, bifocals or other multifocal lenses to also correct presbyopia.

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Eyeglass Lens Materials – Features And Benefits

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Glass lenses. In the early days of vision correction, all eyeglass lenses were made of glass.

Although glass lenses offer exceptional optics, they are heavy and can break easily, potentially causing serious harm to the eye or even loss of an eye. For these reasons, glass lenses are no longer widely used for eyeglasses.

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Plastic lenses. In 1947, the Armorlite Lens Company in California introduced the first lightweight plastic eyeglass lenses. The lenses were made of a plastic polymer called CR-39, an abbreviation for “Columbia Resin 39,” because it was the 39th formulation of a thermal-cured plastic developed by PPG Industries in the early 1940s.

Because of its light weight (about half the weight of glass), low cost and excellent optical qualities, CR-39 plastic remains a popular material for eyeglass lenses even today.

Image result for Eyeglass Polycarbonate lenses.

Polycarbonate lenses. In the early 1970s, Gentex Corporation introduced the first polycarbonate lensesfor safety glasses. Later that decade and in the 1980s, polycarbonate lenses became increasing popular and remain so today.

Originally developed for helmet visors for the Air Force, for “bulletproof glass” for banks and other safety applications, polycarbonate is lighter and significantly more impact-resistant than CR-39 plastic, making it a preferred material for children’s eyewear, safety glasses and sports eyewear.

A newer lightweight eyeglass lens material with similar impact-resistant properties as polycarbonate is called Trivex (PPG Industries), which was introduced for eyewear in 2001. A potential visual advantage of Trivex is its higher Abbe value (see below).

Image result for eyeglasses High-index plastic lenses.Â

High-index plastic lenses. In the past 20 years, in response to the demand for thinner, lighter eyeglasses, a number of lens manufacturers have introduced high-index plastic lenses. These lenses are thinner and lighter than CR-39 plastic lenses because they have a higher index of refraction (see below) and may also have a lower specific gravity.

EYEGLASS LENS MATERIALS
Here are popular eyeglass lens materials, arranged in order of refractive index and lens thickness (pretty good indicators of cost). Except for the crown glass, these are all plastic materials.
Lens Material Refractive Index Abbe Value Key Features and Benefits
High-index plastics 1.70 to 1.74 36 (1.70)
33 (1.74)
The thinnest lenses available.
Block 100 percent UV.
Lightweight.
High-index plastics 1.60 to 1.67 36 (1.60)
32 (1.67)
Thin and lightweight.
Block 100 percent UV.
Less costly than 1.70-1.74 high-index lenses.
Tribrid 1.60 41 Thin and lightweight.
Significantly more impact-resistant than CR-39 plastic and high-index plastic lenses (except polycarbonate and Trivex).
Higher Abbe value than polycarbonate.
Downside: Not yet available in a wide variety of lens designs.
Polycarbonate 1.586 30 Superior impact resistance.
Blocks 100 percent UV.
Lighter than high-index plastic lenses.
Trivex 1.54 45 Superior impact resistance.
Blocks 100 percent UV.
Higher Abbe value than polycarbonate.
Lightest lens material available.
CR-39 plastic 1.498 58 Excellent optics.
Low cost.
Downside: thickness.
Crown glass 1.523 59 Excellent optics.
Low cost.
Downsides: heavy, breakable.

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Index Of Refraction

The index of refraction (or refractive index) of an eyeglass lens material is a number that is a relative measure of how efficiently the material refracts (bends) light, which depends on how fast light travels through the material.

Specifically, the refractive index of a lens material is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum, divided by the speed of light in the lens material.

For example, the index of refraction of CR-39 plastic is 1.498, which mean light travels roughly 50 percent slower through CR-39 plastic than it does through a vacuum.

The higher the refractive index of a material, the slower light moves through it, which results in greater bending (refracting) of the light rays. So the higher the refractive index of a lens material, the less lens material is required to bend light to the same degree as a lens with a lower refractive index.

In other words, for a given eyeglass lens power, a lens made of a material with a high refractive index will be thinner than a lens made of a material with a lower refractive index.

The refractive index of current eyeglass lens materials ranges from 1.498 (CR-39 plastic) to 1.74 (a specific variety of high-index plastic). So for the same prescription power and lens design, a lens made of CR-39 plastic will be the thickest lens available, and a 1.74 high-index plastic lens will be the thinnest.

Image result for eyeglasses Abbe Value

Abbe Value

The Abbe value (or Abbe number) of a lens material is an objective measure of how widely the lens disperses different wavelengths of light as light passes through it. Lens materials with a low Abbe value have high dispersion, which can cause noticeable chromatic aberration — an optical error visible as colored halos around objects, especially lights.

When present, chromatic aberration is most noticeable when looking through the periphery of eyeglass lenses. It is least noticeable when looking directly through the central optical zone of the lenses.

Abbe values of eyeglass lens materials range from a high of 59 (crown glass) to a low of 30 (polycarbonate). The lower the Abbe number, the more likely the lens material is to cause chromatic aberration.

Abbe number is named after the German physicist Ernst Abbe (1840-1905), who defined this useful measure of optical quality.
SEE ALSO: How To Clean Glasses — Without Scratching Your Lenses! >

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Aspheric Design

In addition to choosing a lens material that has a high index of refraction, another way to give your lenses a slimmer, more attractive profile is to choose an aspheric design.

Aspheric designs — where the lens curvature changes gradually from the center of the lens to its edge — enable lens manufacturers to use flatter curves when fabricating eyeglass lenses, without degrading the optical performance of the lenses.

Because aspheric lenses are flatter than conventional (spherical) lens designs, they cause less unwanted magnification of the wearer’s eyes, for a better appearance. In some cases, aspheric designs also improve the clarity of the wearer’s peripheral vision.

Most high index plastic lenses are made with aspheric designs to optimize both the appearance and the optical performance of the lenses. With polycarbonate and CR-39 lenses, an aspheric design usually is an option that increases the cost of the lenses.

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Minimum Center Thickness (Or Edge Thickness)

The FDA has guidelines for impact resistance, so there’s a limit to how thin an optical laboratory can grind your lenses.

In (concave) lenses for the correction of myopia, the thinnest portion of the lens is the optical center, located at or near the middle. In (convex) lenses that correct farsightedness, the thinnest portion of the lens is at its edges.

Because of their superior impact resistance, polycarbonate and Trivex lenses that correct myopia can be fabricated to a center thickness of just 1.0 mm and still pass the FDA impact-resistance standard. Myopia-correcting lenses made of other materials usually have to be thicker in the center to pass the standard.

The size and shape of your eyeglass frames also will affect the thickness of your lenses, especially if you have a strong prescription. Choosing a smaller, well-centered frame can significantly reduce the thickness and weight of your lenses, regardless of the lens material you choose.

Generally, the thinnest lenses for your prescription will be aspheric lenses made of a high-index material, worn in a small frame.

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Eyeglass Lens Treatments

For the most comfortable, durable and best-looking glasses, the following lens treatments should be considered essential:

Man wearing glasses outdoors

If you’re not going to wear sunglasses outdoors, make sure your eyeglass lenses block 100 percent of UV rays. Some lens materials don’t without an added coating.

Anti-scratch coating. All lightweight eyeglass lens materials (see table) have surfaces that are significantly softer and more prone to scratches and abrasions than glass lenses. The softest eyeglass lens is also the one that is the most impact-resistant: polycarbonate. But all plastic and high-index plastic lenses require a factory-applied anti-scratch coating for adequate lens durability.

Most of today’s modern anti-scratch coatings (also called scratch coats or hard coats) can make your eyeglass lenses nearly as scratch-resistant as glass. But if you’re hard on your glasses or you’re buying eyeglasses for your kids, ask about lenses that include a warranty against scratches for a specific period of time.

Anti-reflective coating. An anti-reflective (AR) coating makes all eyeglass lenses better. AR coatings eliminate reflections in lenses that reduce contrast and clarity, especially at night. They also make your lenses nearly invisible, so you can make better eye contact and you and others aren’t distracted by reflections in your lenses. AR-coated lenses are also much less likely to have glare spots in photographs.

Anti-reflective coating is especially important if you choose high-index lenses, because the higher the refractive index of a lens material, the more light the lenses reflect. In fact, high-index lenses can reflect up to 50 percent more light than CR-39 lenses, causing significantly more glare, unless AR coating is applied.

UV-blocking treatment. Cumulative exposure to the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation over a person’s lifetime has been associated with age-related eye problems including cataracts and macular degeneration.

For this reason, people should protect their eyes from UV beginning in early childhood. Thankfully, polycarbonate and nearly all high-index plastic lenses have 100 percent UV protection built-in, due to absorptive characteristics of the lens material.

But if you choose CR-39 plastic lenses, be aware that these lenses need an added coating applied to provide equal UV protection afforded by other lens materials.

Photochromic treatment. This lens treatment enables eyeglass lenses to darken automatically in response to the sun’s UV and high-energy visible (HEV) light rays, and then quickly return to clear (or nearly clear) when indoors. Photochromic lenses are available in virtually all lens materials and designs.

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Cost Of Eyeglass Lenses And Eyeglasses

Depending on the type of lenses and lens treatments you choose and the lens design you need, your eyeglass lenses can easily cost more than the frames you choose — even if you choose the latest designer frames.

So how much will your glasses cost? That’s hard to say.

According to Consumer Reports’ latest reader survey published in 2013, respondents spent a median of $244 out-of-pocket on their last pair of prescription eyeglasses. But this figure can be misleading.

The amount you pay for your next pair of glasses will depend on many factors, including your visual needs, your fashion desires and whether you have vision insurance that covers a portion of the cost of your eyewear.

Keep in mind that if you choose high-end designer frames and aspheric, high-index progressive lenses with premium anti-reflective coating, it’s not unusual for the cost of your eyeglasses to exceed $800.

On the other hand, if you’re buying your child’s first pair of prescription eyeglasses with polycarbonate lenses for mild myopia, the cost will be much closer to $200 for quality eyewear, including a scratch-resistant warranty.

To get the best value, it’s essential to understand the features and benefits of the products you are considering and to choose wisely with the help of a reputable eye care provider and/or eyewear retailer.

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When Buying Eyeglass Lenses, There’s No Substitute For Expert Advice

Buying eyeglass lenses can seem daunting, but it doesn’t have to be. The key is getting accurate, unbiased eyeglass lens information from sources you can trust. To find an eye doctor near you, click here.

For greatest satisfaction with your eyewear, in addition to using this guide, follow this advice echoed by Consumer Reports: During your eye exam, ask your eye doctor which eyeglass lenses and lens treatments are best for your specific needs and eyeglass prescription.

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