Comfortable Under Wear, Has Arrived And Is Just A Click Away!!!! Part IV Of VII

Silk

It’s a classic choice, but silk is quickly disappearing from the underwear market. And for good reason. “Although it offers incredible lightness and breath ability, it’s a delicate fabric that doesn’t benefit from wash and wear and damages easily,” says Francis. Leave to Peter String-fellow.

Mesh

The go-to material for sports-oriented underwear, mesh is light and breathable. Some brands go even further and use heat-sensitive mesh fabric that helps disperse body heat and leaves your pants feeling cool to the touch – even after a bout of cardio.

The Other ‘Underwear’ You Need To Know

These days, underwear is about more than just pants. Here’s everything else you should slip between skin and clothes.

Up Keep Of Your Under Garments

 Underwear Rules

Clear Your Drawers Out Regularly

No matter how well you treat your underwear, eventually those tighty whities will turn to grubby grundies. Make sure that you have a regular check-in with your collection of underwear (about every three months or so) and dispose of anything that you’d be embarrassed to be seen in by a significant other.

Pick Your Fabrics Wisely

In most cases, cotton underwear is a great option because it’s natural, breathable and will absorb a degree of unwanted moisture down below – it’s basically your best bet for every day. But if you’re exerting yourself, things get a little more, ahem, steamy, so you’ll need to look for fabrics that bolster cotton’s natural assets by wicking away moisture. A cotton-spandex blend is ideal for gymwear and won’t need to be wringed out after you’ve achieved a PB on leg day.

Size Yourself Up Properly

For reasons which we won’t go into, trying on underwear in shops isn’t good form. Having an awareness of your core size and sticking to a certain brand when you’ve found the perfect fit is crucial for comfort, however.

Underwear which comes up too large will have you shifting around in your seat all day, while anything that’s smaller than it should be will cut off your circulation rather than boost your package. Size matters.

Wash White Underwear In Non-Chlorine Bleach

If you think you’ve mastered the art of being a grown up because you’ve figured out that bleaching white underwear will stop it looking from so goddamn tired, you’re actually only an adulthood amateur.

Bleach will restore some of the former glory of your white underwear, but you’ll need to make sure it’s a non-chlorine variety to reap that dazzling brightness without wreaking havoc on your underwear’s elasticity.

Buy Little And Often

Relying on the charity of others (usually at Christmas) is a surefire way to put unnecessary strain on the smalls which live in your underwear drawer. To make sure that all your underwear gets a regular break, make sure that you’re getting into the habit of topping it up on the regular.

This way your pants won’t suffer from premature ageing and if you’re naff at remembering to stick on a regular wash, you’re less likely to encounter an empty drawer and face a day going commando.

How To Keep Your Underwear Looking Good

You’re not Bridget Jones, so you’ve no excuse for grey, saggy pants. Even if no one’s going to see them. “Keeping your underwear in pristine condition means taking extra care,” advises the Sunspel team, “so be as gentle as possible when washing, folding or ironing – if you’re way that way inclined.”

Wash: “Obviously never mix whites with greys, off-whites or colours as they will lose their sheen. Temperature is key too – a hotter wash does more damage to the fabric, so stick to 30 degrees and, if possible, use a gentle wash cycle. Silk, because of its delicacy, should always be hand-washed.”

One option: Only buy black or navy pants. That way, you can chuck them in with your darks.

Dry: “Drying your underwear flat means they keep their shape better. Due to their delicate nature, it’s best to avoid a dryer.”

Storage: “If you’re keen to go the extra mile you can fold your underwear in tissue paper to preserve the fabric and keep it neat and unwrinkled. Another tip is to store garments with lavender or cedar wood – the scent will deter moths.”

BEST CHEAP UNDERWEAR FOR MEN

10. Hanes Men’s Five-Pack Ultimate Tartan Boxers

 Best Cheap Underwear for Men: Hanes Men's Five-Pack Ultimate Tartan Boxers
82 USER SCORE
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WHY PEOPLE LOVE IT

  • Fully functional fly
  • Inexpensive, yet backed by the quality of Hanes
  • Fly doesn’t gap

PROSCONS

Hanes is one of those quality brands that you just can’t go wrong with – and these are dirt cheap.

DETAILS

The best thing about boxers?  Rolling out of bed and not needing to pull on a pair of shorts to make a cup of coffee. Guys love this line and rave like madmen for the way it fits, wash after wash. You will too. Made with cotton and polyester, these boxers also have a functioning fly that doesn’t gap. Now that’s a bonus. Plus, these boxers aren’t going to break the bank.

What Reviewers Say:

Almost across the board, men rave about the comfort of these boxers. If that’s what you’re after and you don’t mind the sweet price either, it’s time to give these boxers a try.

  • “These are comfortable. The material is nice, and the waistbands are not rough. I like the tagless feature.”
  • “Excellent product. light weight, firm but soft waste band. lots of leg room but not baggie in the bottom. and the price is right.”
  • “I’ve bought and tried just about every name-brand boxer that costs less than $10 each and have found that Hanes are the best. But only if they are the ‘Classics’ (plural, not singular) version. (The non-Classics version that you get at discount stores are NOT the same.)”

SHOW MORE

Continue To V Of VII

For 17 months, a man allegedly poisoned his co-worker’s food and water And Seven Other Nightmare Co-Worker Stories.

Amanda Jackson

Forced to smile at work? You might drink more when you get off. However Naturally Smiling Has Nine Super Powers

By Doug Criss, CNN Updated 11:05 AM ET, Mon April 15, 2019

(CNN)If you have to deal with the public on the job — especially in retail or restaurants — you know the drill: Flash those pearly whites, even when you don’t want to.

But there may be a price for all of that coerced smiling: You might drink more when you get off work.
That’s the main finding coming out of a recent study in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, in which researchers from Penn State and the University of Buffalo looked at the drinking habits of people who have to work with the public. They found a link between the fake smiles and increased instances of “knocking a few back” after work.
“Faking and suppressing emotions with customers was related to drinking beyond the stress of the job or feeling negatively,” Alicia Grandey, a psychology professor at Penn State, told Penn State News. “It wasn’t just feeling badly that makes them reach for a drink. Instead, the more they have to control negative emotions at work, the less they are able to control their alcohol intake after work.”
Grandey urged employers to rethink policies where employees have to serve up “service with a smile” because that might be something of a health hazard for workers.

The downside of “surface acting”

Grandey and the other researchers examined data that came from a previous survey called the National Survey of Work Stress and Health, comprising phone interviews with 1,592 workers in the United States. These workers were asked how often they faked their smiles (called surface acting), how often they drank after work, how much control they feel they have on the job and how impulsive they are.
“The relationship between surface acting and drinking after work was stronger for people who are impulsive or who lack personal control over behavior at work,” Grandey said. “If you’re impulsive or constantly told how to do your job, it may be harder to rein in your emotions all day, and when you get home, you don’t have that self-control to stop after one drink.”
The link between forced smiles and drinking is especially strong in employees who are impulsive and who work in jobs where they only have one-time encounters with customers — like the clerk who rings you up at the mall — as opposed to, say, health care workers, who develop more of a long-term relationship with patients.
Age may play a part in this too. The researchers note that most workers in retail and restaurant work tend to be younger, and in entry-level jobs, so they may not have the self-control needed to fake a smile and not overdrink later at home or at a bar.
Grandey suggested employers use the findings from the study to construct more desirable work settings for their employees.
“Employers may want to consider allowing employees to have a little more autonomy at work, like they have some kind of choice on the job,” Grandey said. “And when the emotional effort is clearly linked to financial or relational rewards, the effects aren’t so bad.”

The 9 Superpowers of Your Smile

New research adds more benefits of smiling to a long and happy list.

Meg Selig

Posted May 25, 2016

"Smiling Girl," by Eric McGregor, CC/en.wikipedia.org
Source: “Smiling Girl,” by Eric McGregor, CC/en.wikipedia.org

“When you’re smiling, when you’re smiling, the whole world smiles with you.” Yes, the old song is right; smiles are contagious! But that’s just one of the superpowers of a smile.

Various researchers have already compiled a long list of the benefits of smiling. Now, new research from the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) adds two more reasons to that list. I’ll start with the recent news and then list other known superpowers of smiles. But, even a wonderful act like smiling has a downside, so at the end of this post I’ll relay a few warnings.

Two Smiley Faces for This Research

This is what the researchers at UMKC recently discovered:

1. Smiling can make you look younger. Even if there were no other benefits to smiling, I’m sure many of us would be grateful just for this one. The UMKC researchers tested the popular theory that smiling might cause others to perceive you as being younger than you actually are. Sure enough, in a small study, college students perceived older people who had happy smiles on their faces as looking younger than their age. The people with frowns on their faces were categorized as looking older.

Here’s my theory about this: A smile provides you with a mini-facelift. Turning up the corners of your mouth raises your entire face, including cheeks, jowls, and neck. Try it now! Instead of spending $15,000 or more on a facelift, just smile.

2. Smiling can make you look thinner. In a recent study by a young psychology student at UMKC, sad faces randomized and flashed on a computer screen were judged to be heftier. This is a surprising conclusion; I can only speculate that a mouth turned down in a frown might give the impression that a person is weighed down by unhappiness. In any event, I sense a bestseller here: The Smile Diet.

More Research to Grin About

Here are seven more reasons to smile that I gleaned from past research:

3. Smiling elevates your mood and creates a sense of well-being. As behavioral psychologist Sarah Stevenson writes in this blog, “Each time you smile you throw a little feel-good party in your brain.” The notorious party animals dopamine, endorphins, and serotonin start whooping it up when you smile. And a bonus: those endorphins serve as natural pain relievers and act as the body’s own opiates.

4. Smiling induces more pleasure in the brain more than chocolate. I know you don’t believe this. I don’t believe it either. But according to Ron Gutman, the author of Smile: The Astonishing Powers of a Simple Act, “British researchers found that one smile can generate the same level of brain stimulation as up to 2,000 bars of chocolate.” Where do I sign up for the next experiment? And what happened to the person who ate 2,000 bars of chocolate? I’d like to interview him

5. Even a forced smile can lead to a mood boost. Usually we think that a positive experience is what makes us smile. While this is true, it’s also true that merely deciding to smile can provide a positive experience. As Buddhist author Thich Nhat Hanh said, “Sometimes your joy is the source of your smile, but sometimes your smile can be the source of your joy.” Even research subjects directed to place a pencil between their teeth, forcing their lips into a smile, actually feel better. Odd, but true.

So if you’re feeling down in the dumps, smiling will give you a boost—if you can get your moody self to smile. Remember that changing your behavior by smiling can change your inner feelings. In other words, if you “Put On a Happy Face,” you will actually feel happier.

6. Smiles can predict fulfillment in marriage. In a study cited by Gutman, the Smile author, the smiles of students were measured, and these ultimately predicted how long-lasting and satisfying the person’s marriage would be. Right! Who wants to live with a grouch?

7. Smiling makes you seem courteous, likable, and competent. Those first two qualities seem logical, but smiling makes you seem competent? Speculation: If you look sad or anxious, perhaps others wonder if you know what you are doing. So perhaps a simple smile might be a shortcut to business success.

8. The span of a person’s smile can predict life span. A 2010 Wayne State University research project studied pre-1950s major league player baseball cards. According to Gutman, “The researchers found that the span of a player’s smile could actually predict the span of his life. Players who didn’t smile in their pictures lived an average of only 72.9 years, where players with beaming smiles lived an average of almost 80 years.” Is a smile worth seven years extra years of life to you

9. Smiling is contagious. As mentioned at the beginning of this blog, smiling is contagious. It’s not just celebrities, but YOU who can light up a room if you enter smiling. If you like to help others and lift the spirits of everyone you see, just smile.

The Shadow of Your Smile

Even though smiling is good for your health, your relationships, and your appearance, be aware of these six things:

1. Trying to avoid negative emotions just to appear youthful or thin or even eternally positive can eventually have a psychological cost. Know yourself and be aware of what each of your emotions might be telling you. Then decide whether to put on a happy face or not.

2. Other people can detect a fake smile, as opposed to a genuine “Duchenne smile,” named for the neurologist who identified these two smile types. So if you decide to smile to help yourself feel better, try to make it real for yourself—it will also come across as real to others. Find your inner reservoir of happiness and gratitude, and drink from it.

3. A smirky smile when you’ve beaten others in a contest will not help you win friends and influence people, according to the research described here. Or, as your mom may have said, “Wipe that smile off your face!”

4. Some smiles are associated with discomfort or uncertainty about what to do in a difficult situation. For example, this blog by Ron Riggio points to studies showing that women who are sexually harassed, however mildly, may feel they have to “grin and bear it” in a work situation. Their fake and fearful smiles undoubtedly do not produce the feel-good chemicals that accompany an authentic smile.

10 Frightening Facts About Private Military Companies

PAULI POISUO 

1KSHARES

Private military companies are essentially armies that are controlled by no one but their shareholders and whoever pays them the most. They’re not about to go anywhere, either—on the contrary, as capitalism marches on, there are more and more of these private armies running around the globe.

Let’s take a look at what they do.

10 Discount Soldiers

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The thing about private military companies is that (like any other company) they can come from literally anywhere. Defion Internacional, for instance, hails from Peru, South America. This may not seem like the most obvious place for a frightening private army—that is, until you realize that Peru suffered a 20-year internal conflict that ended as recently as 2000 and is still trying to pick up the pieces.

The country is full of men who grew up in a state of constant conflict, and are now struggling to support their families in a poor economy. As such, Defion Internacional has been able to hire their personnel with as little as US$1000 per month. Of course, these men think it is a fairly good salary for them, as typical monthly wages in Peru (if they manage to get work) is only around $200 a month.

Defion Internacional specializes in dangerous security assignments in the Middle East, but also has other lines of business such as food and medical services, English teaching, and (most frighteningly) insurance. The company has been given missions in Iraq by the US Department of State, meaning that these underpaid Peruvians have actually worked with the US Military. They have also worked for a larger US private military company called Triple Canopy Inc., although these days the latter prefers to do their own hiring in Peru. Hey, speaking of Triple Canopy . . .

9 A Private Army Guards US Officials Abroad

Triple-Canopy-Security-Guards
Triple Canopy, like Defion Internacional, is known to employ discount South American soldiers. However, that’s just a small fraction of their business. Founded by ex-members of the US Army Special Forces, Triple Canopy is a mercenary force that works mainly for the US government in Iraq. Their employees include former Navy SEALs, Rangers, Special Operations personnel and police officers.

Although it specializes in security and escort operations, Triple Canopy has been responsible for some of the toughest missions a mercenary company can undertake. After Saddam Hussein’s fall, the company found employment in Iraq, guarding and escorting US officials and performing other high-risk duties. As a company that works closely with the military, some have dubbed them the “other army” of the United States.

8Rise Of The German Mercenaries

Darman
For years, Germans (who for obvious reasons have tried to lead a conflict-free life since World War II) scoffed at the American private militaries that were causing trouble all over the world’s conflict zones. In 2007, they received some troubling news of their own: A former German officer called Thomas Kaltegärtner had founded a mercenary company of his own.

Kaltegärtner’s company, Asgaard German, then went on to cause further gray hairs to German politicians by signing a deal to provide security services for Galadid Abdinur Ahmad Darman, the President of Somalia. Apparently, their mission is no less than restoring security in the war-ravaged area.

This may not sound like such a bad thing, except for one thing: Darman happens to be a self-appointed president—one of many Somali warlords who’ve claimed that title and refuse to recognize the authority of the official, United Nations-appointed transition government of the country. One can only imagine what “security services” for such a person might entail, and how he is planning to “restore peace in the area.”

And now he has a bunch of highly trained German soldiers to help him.

7 Image Issues

book
These days, private military companies are very keen on maintaining a positive, professional reputation. After all, the Information Age has made sure that every single gaffe companies make eventually finds its way to the eyes of the world. A prime example of this new, shiny veneer is Sandline International, the now-defunct British company closely associated with Aegis Defence, whose mercenaries saw action in war-torn Sierra Leone and Papua New Guinea, among other places.

Sandline had an advisor and public spokesman called Michael Grunberg, who smilingly fed the media the same kind of corporate buzzword talk that a tech company CEO might sprout: According to Grunberg, his company and its horde of privately paid soldiers are “established entities, have established sets of principles and employ professional people.” Sandline also handled bad publicity just as awkwardly as any other company: For instance, when a book that criticized the company came out (Mercenaries: An African Security Dilemmathey responded by publishing a massive list of flaws in the writing, nitpicking the book’s details to death without really responding to any of the more serious accusations.

6 Academi

blw
Academi is probably the most harmless-sounding name on this list, but don’t be fooled: The company is actually none other than the infamous Blackwater. The company’s history of atrocities runs so far and deep that there are entire websites solely dedicated to listing their various shady activities: For a while, they were even involved in a CIA death squad.”

The name “Academi,” which has been in use since 2011, marks the second time the company has attempted to whitewash its name in five years. It’s first name change was to “XE Services,” which lasted only two years, until yet another “corporate restructuring” took place. So far, this strategy seems to work for them, as their new name is yet to be too tarnished. Then again, judging by the fact that they have already been forced to admit to at least 17 federal criminal charges and pay millions of dollars in fines, it seems like it’s just a matter of time before they have to come up with an even less threatening name. Though with their reputation at this point, there probably is no name that could soften their public image.

5 Executive Outcomes

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In the other end of the sliding scale of terrifying private militaries, we have Executive Outcomes, known to their friends as EO (if they have any). This South African company has been sighted in most African war zones, where it is said to hold high influence. Executive Outcomes mercenaries have been seen in Sierra Leone, Angola, Uganda, Botswana, Zambia, Ethiopia, Namibia, Lesotho and, of course, South Africa. Although they officially state their only mission is bringing peace, they have been suspected of several shady activities ranging from Sierra Leone-based oil company shenanigans to diamond dealings with the jewel giant De Beers.

The company is notorious for targeting the client country’s mineral-rich regions, often regaining and securing control of gold, oil and diamond regions before paying attention to other matters. Some whisper they don’t always get around to returning these possessions to the country. Executive Outcomes is said to own gold mines in Uganda, oil drilling facilities in Ethiopia and a variety of other peacetime business ventures in the other countries it has fought for.

4 The Case Of Jamie Leigh Jones

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In 2007, Jamie Leigh Jones, an employee of private military contractor Halliburton/KBR, claimed she was gang-raped by several of her co-workers. This traumatic experience was just the beginning of her struggles with the private military company. Her employer then decided to cover up the incident by locking her in a shipping container with no food or water for 24 hours. This was followed with a warning: They’d immediately fire her if she left Iraq to seek medical treatment.

Unsurprisingly, Jones sued. However, the court proceedings proved problematic. KBR’s employee contract stipulated that Jones’s claims be heard without jury, judge, public record, or transcripts, which made it extremely difficult to prove whether or not anything had happened. Finally, after 15 months of much-publicized fighting, Jones was allowed to take KBR to court. When the case finally came to trial in 2011, KBR wheeled out evidence that had been completely ignored by the media. Jones had a history of manipulation and lying and had wildly changed her story multiple times. One of these changes included the claim that her pectoral muscle had been torn and her chest had been injured to the point of disfigurement, but she “could not produce a single witness from Iraq” who could confirm that she’d even claimed to have a chest injury. In fact, her flight out of Iraq required her to put on a very heavy bulletproof jacket, which doctors pointed out would have been literally impossible with the specific injuries she claimed to have. She eventually lost the case, despite maintaining to the end that her story was true.

Although we may never find out for sure what exactly happened to Jones and how it was initially dealt with by the company, it did bring to light KBR’s unethical employment contract, which banned employees from pressing sexual assault charges in court. Since the incident, the US government passed an amendment to the Defense Appropriations bill, which prevented the government from dealing with companies who have that clause in their employment contracts, and so KBR was forced to change it.

3 Trophy Videos

In 2005, a “trophy video” featuring presumably Scottish or Irish men randomly shooting Iraqi civilians was uploaded on a site that was unofficially affiliated with Aegis Defence Services—a private military company that incidentally employs both Scots and Irishmen. The incident caused considerable outcry in news media all over the world, and sparked dialogue about the state of Iraqi defense. At that point, over 25,000 private security contractors were stationed in the country. They were widely hated and had a reputation for abusing and even killing civilians at the slightest provocation. None of them had ever been brought to law, because the local law enforcement had been specifically forbidden to prosecute them.Despite video footage, this case was not an exception. Upon carefully reviewing the available material, US Army’s Criminal Investigation Division eventually concluded that they are not going to press charges. Meanwhile, Aegis Defence is keeping its own internal investigations carefully under wraps. None of the incident’s investigative files have been released to the public.

2 The Founder, David Stirling

stirling
Although mercenary armies have been around more or less since war was invented, the creation of the modern private military company is usually attributed to Colonel David Stirling. Stirling was a Scottish Laird and a skillful military man to the very core: Even before he started dabbling in the mercenary business, he had created a little something called the SAS, which you may know as one of the most elite special force units in the world.

After Stirling left the army following World War II, he moved to Africa and founded Capricorn Africa, a society for promoting racial harmony. However, destiny had chosen another path for him. Before long, he was running Watchguard International Ltd., a commercial company that helped train security units for several Arab and African countries. Watchguard, established in the 1960s, is usually attributed as the first modern private military company.

1 Sex Trafficking

bosnia
DynCorp is one of the most powerful private military companies in the world, with most of its several-billion dollar revenue coming directly from the US government. Sadly, allegations have been made that the company’s code of conduct leaves something to be desired—to say the least.

In the late 1990s, two whistleblowers (independently from each other) came forward and alleged that DynCorp employees stationed in Bosnia were routinely abusing civilians. According to their accusations, DynCorp people engaged in sex with minors, and had even sold civilians to each other as slaves.

The company immediately reacted to the terrifying news . . . by firing both of the whistleblowers. One of them in particular, Kathryn Bolkovac, had already been facing severe difficulties before the firing: Despite the fact that she had uncovered a network of brothels and bars at which kidnapped women were forced to entertain peacekeepers, her attempts to report the issue through the chain of command were constantly sabotaged and people even threatened her life.

However, Kathryn persevered. She, along with the other whistleblower, took DynCorp to court. The company lost both cases, and the antics of its employees were revealed to the world so hard that Hollywood even made a major motion picture out of Bolkovac’s story.

( Plus One) Sharp End International

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Despite living in a continent that is mainly made of deadly spiders (or maybe because of it), Australians have an uncanny ability to bring their own peculiar sense of humor in almost any situation. Private military business is no different: With its joking name that is in sharp contrast with its no-nonsense webpage, it’s no surprise that Sharp End International hails from Australia. Another clue is that they actually have a Facebook fan page.

Sharp End is a relatively tiny company, as private military hordes go. This is because it’s a highly specialized organization: A private military force that trainsother military forces. Its special operatives are experts at providing training for government and corporate troops, which means that they actually show other private militaries how things are done. This makes them a potentially highly dangerous entity—luckily, they seem to have a fairly strict code of conduct and won’t train just anyone.

10 Insidious Villains Of American Political History

D.E. OKS 

American political history is remembered mostly for its heroes—George Washington, Thaddeus Stevens, the Roosevelts—but it is also ripe with villainy. Some historical wrongdoers, of course, have earned infamy, such as Jefferson Davis, William “Boss” Tweed, and Joe McCarthy. Others, like those on this list, have faded from the collective consciousness of the American populace.

10Henry Styles Bridges

10-henry-styles-bridges

Photo via Wikimedia

A Republican senator from New Hampshire from 1937 until his death in 1961, Henry Styles Bridges was an uncommonly ardent anticommunist and a steadfast defender of the more famous Joseph McCarthy. Bridges is one of the few to have voted against McCarthy’s censure in 1954. He also supported the “witch hunts” which took place during the second “Red Scare” as well as the persecution of gay civil servants during the so-called “lavender scare.”

These actions alone would convince many that he was an unsavory character, but his infamy lies in his treatment of Democratic Senator Lester Hunt of Wyoming in 1953–54. Hunt’s son was gay and had been arrested for trying to solicit sex from an undercover policeman. Bridges threatened to publicize the homosexuality of Hunt’s son if Hunt did not withdraw from the upcoming senatorial election in Wyoming.

Senator Hunt refused to end his reelection campaign. He also introduced Senate rules which would have ended some of McCarthy’s demagogic behavior. Bridges again threatened to reveal Hunt’s secret, causing him to fall into a deep depression. On June 19, 1954, Hunt shot and killed himself with a rifle at his Senate desk.

Bridges remained in the Senate until his death seven years later.

9Pat McCarran

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Photo credit: Harris and Ewing

Senator Pat McCarran of Nevada was a member of the overzealously anticommunist group of senators who collaborated with and supported Joseph McCarthy. Unlike McCarthy, however, McCarran was less focused on demagoguery to promote his “brand” and more focused on putting McCarthy’s words into concrete legislation.

McCarran’s magnum opus was the Internal Security Act of 1950. The law ordered all communist organizations to register with the attorney general and created a board to investigate people suspected of being communist sympathizers. Those individuals found to be “reds” were barred from leaving the country or hiding membership in a communist organization when applying to work in government. Although President Harry Truman vetoed the law, arguing that it “would betray our finest traditions” and “curb the simple expression of opinion,” the president’s veto was overridden.

McCarran also wrote the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which allowed the government to restrict visas and citizenship based on political affiliation. This meant that many esteemed international figures—including Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Pierre Trudeau—were not allowed to enter the country.

When McCarran died in office in 1954, his name was held in rather high regard. However, decades later, his position as a political boss prone to using patronage, his anti-Semitism, and the Supreme Court’s ruling that several provisions of the Internal Security Act were unconstitutional have tarnished his reputation.

8James K. Vardaman

8-james-vardaman

Photo via Wikimedia

In 1903, the people of Mississippi chose James K. Vardaman, a representative in the Mississippi Legislature, to be governor. On many issues, Vardaman was a progressive: He supported an anti–child labor law and fought against the convict lease system. In a system shockingly similar to slavery, the convict lease systemlent convicts—the vast majority of whom were African American due to the era’s pervasive racism—to farmers and corporations as free labor.

But his greatest legacy is his racism, which bordered on sadism. In true “The Most Dangerous Game” fashion, Vardaman enjoyed releasing a convict from prison and giving him a morning’s head start before “[leading] a mounted posse, complete with prison bloodhounds, on a mock hunt” for the terrified man. Vardaman openly advocated the notoriously cruel practice of lynching, saying that “if it is necessary every Negro in the state will be lynched; it will be done to maintain white supremacy.”

Vardaman did not believe that African Americans could ever become civilized. Instead, he believed that African Americans were condemned to an eternal position of servitude to whites. Thus, he proposed the elimination of all public schools serving African Americans and the repeal of the 14th and 15th Amendments, stripping African Americans of their citizenship and their accompanying rights. Vardaman even suggested that education succeeded only in “making a criminal of him and impairing his usefulness and efficiency as a laborer. [ . . . ] Slavery is the only process by which he has ever been partially civilized. God Almighty created the Negro for a menial, he is essentially a servant.”

Four years after his term as governor of Mississippi ended in 1908, he ran for a seat in the US Senate and won. Due to his opposition to Woodrow Wilson, Vardaman lost reelection in 1918. He died in 1930.

7John E. Rankin

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Photo credit: Harris & Ewing

If there were an award for the figure most often on the wrong side of history, Mississippi Congressman John E. Rankin would surely be the front-runner for it. Rankin, who served from 1921 to 1953, was one of the most vicious bigots that Congress has ever seen.

A sympathizer of the Ku Klux Klan, Rankin was a leading force in the disenfranchisement of African Americans for decades. Stating that the US lost battles because of the cowardice of African-American soldiers, Rankin successfully halted efforts to allow African-American soldiers fighting in World War II to vote. He also steadfastly opposed efforts to curb lynchings.

Rankin was an avowed anti-Semite and Japanophobe. He proposed incarcerating all Japanese Americans in camps and quietly threatened American Jews with an American holocaust, saying that Jews “have been run out of practically every country in Europe in the years gone by, and if they keep stirring race trouble in this country and trying to force their communistic program on the Christian people of America, there is no telling what will happen to them here.”

Perhaps the best example of Rankin’s horrid character is this infuriating story: At a naval munitions center in California in 1944, a large explosion killed 320 soldiers, the majority of whom were African-American officers segregated from their white counterparts. Congress debated giving $5,000 in aid to each of the victims’ families. But Rankin argued to lower the payment considerably because of the dead soldiers’ race. Ultimately, the amount was reduced by 40 percent to $3,000 per family.

6Jesse Helms

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Jesse Helms, a US Senator from North Carolina from 1973 to 2003, is the most contemporary of this collection of political villains. Called “the last prominent unabashed white racist politician in this country” by The Washington Post, Helms never apologized for his racism and showcased it for his whole career. He made ample use of racial subtext as a campaign tool.

In 1990, when his bid for reelection was challenged by an African-American candidate, Helms released the now-infamous “white hands” campaign ad, which depicted white hands crumbling a rejection slip while a narrator’s voice declared, “You needed that job and you were the best qualified. But they had to give it to a minority because of a racial quota.” He supported the apartheid regime in South Africa and led the opposition to making Martin Luther King Jr. Day a national holiday.

Helms was also an archnemesis of sorts of the gay community. When President Bill Clinton nominated an openly lesbian woman to an assistant secretary position in the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Helms opposed the appointment by saying, “I’m not going to put a lesbian in a position like that.” After President Clinton wanted to integrate gays into the military, Helms threatened that “[Clinton had] better have a bodyguard” if he went to North Carolina. In 1987, Helms authored an amendment (which was adopted) to a bill that banned anyone with HIV from traveling or immigrating to the US.

Helms was also opposed to federal funding for HIV/AIDS research, saying that the disease was spread by “unnatural” and “disgusting” homosexual relations. Helms blocked the funding repeatedly in the Senate, prolonging the AIDS crisis. “Nothing positive happened to Sodom and Gomorrah, and nothing positive is likely to happen to America,” he said, “if our people succumb to the drumbeats of support for the homosexual lifestyle.”

5Benjamin ‘Pitchfork’ Tillman

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Photo credit: Bain News Service

A prominent South Carolina politician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Benjamin Tillman not only promoted discrimination but also personally took part in violence against African Americans.

As the leader of the “Red Shirts” (a paramilitary group similar to the Ku Klux Klan) in 1876, 29-year-old Tillman participated in the “Hamburg Massacre,” in which six African Americans were murdered. He was never tried for his crimes.

Fourteen years later, Tillman was elected governor of South Carolina, using his position to encourage the lynching of African Americans as punishment for alleged sexual misconduct. The frequency of lynching soared under his leadership.

After his term as governor was complete, Tillman joined the US Senate. He earned his nickname, “Pitchfork Ben,” by threatening to stab President Grover Cleveland with the tool. Infamous for a fistfight he had on the Senate floor, he was so hated by President Theodore Roosevelt that he was banned from entering the White House.

4Laurence Keitt

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Photo via Wikimedia

In the prelude to the Civil War, one of the most despicable political groups was the so-called “Fire-Eaters,” a faction of radical, proslavery Southern politicians who promoted secession and rejected all proposed compromises to keep the Union intact. Of these extremists, the most violent and ardently proslavery was Laurence Keitt, who was elected to Congress in 1852.

In 1856, Keitt became well-known in Washington, DC, when he helped Representative Preston Brooks brutally beat Senator Charles Sumner with a cane by threatening any of Sumner’s would-be saviors with a pistol. Two years later, Keitt started a massive brawl in the House of Representatives by trying to strangle Pennsylvania Representative Galusha Grow for insulting his devotion to slavery. Keitt was perhaps too busy beating on his fellow Congressmen to sponsor any significant bills, but he led many campaigns to expand slavery, including one to annex Cuba and make it a slave state.

When South Carolina seceded, Keitt became a Confederate politician, even signing the Constitution of the Confederate States. After the Civil War started, Keitt fought in the war as a brigadier general. In 1864, he was wounded during battle and died of his injuries.

3George Wallace

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Photo credit: Tilden76

In 1968, a divided nation was reeling from the bloody Vietnam War and bitter battles over civil rights. Alabama Governor George Wallace, an ardent segregationist who had once promised “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever,” ran on a platform of “law and order” as the candidate of the American Independent Party. Known as the embodiment of opposition to the civil rights movement, he was determined to rescind the progress made by African Americans during the 1950s and ‘60s.

With his stronghold only in the Deep South, Wallace knew that he could never win the general election. Although he presented himself as a legitimate presidential candidate, he actually had another goal in mind. He wanted to siphon off enough votes to prevent the declaration of a winner in the electoral college. That would throw the election to the House of Representatives, where Wallace intended to use his significant influence to determine the winner, selecting whichever candidate agreed to enact laws restoring segregation.

On Election Day, Wallace won the states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas, which was not enough to bring his plan to fruition. If Wallace had won the states of Tennessee, South Carolina, and North Carolina, all of which he came close to winning, the election would have been thrown to the House, and Wallace’s plot may have succeeded. If Wallace had gotten his way, many of the advances by African Americans made during the 1950s and ‘60s would almost certainly have been reversed.

Wallace did succeed, however, in using racial tensions to his advantage. This stratagem inspired the conservative Southern Strategy, the use of coded racism to appeal to Southern voters, which was exploited by a large number of conservative politicians, including the previously mentioned Jesse Helms. In 2005, the chairman of the Republican National Committee formally disavowed Wallace’s influence on his party by apologizing for his party “[benefiting] politically from racial polarization.”

2Huey ‘Kingfish’ Long

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Photo via Wikimedia

Few Americans have a legacy as controversial as that of Huey Long. As governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and later as a US Senator, Long certainly made great contributions to his state. He shifted the tax burden from the poor to the rich, expanded welfare for the poor, and spent considerable sums on infrastructure. But there was a dark side to his legacy.

Long was a radical populist whose tactics mirrored those of Benito Mussolini. Using intimidation and bribery to pass his reforms, Long had nearly complete control over his state, earning him a reputation as an American dictator.

In 1932, he joined the US Senate and began plotting his election to the presidency. In 1934, Long released his “Share Our Wealth” proposal, which called for the confiscation of upper-class wealth and a guaranteed income for all Americans. President Franklin Roosevelt considered him “one of the . . . most dangerous men in America” for this redistribution program, which would have hugely empowered the government and given Long nearly unlimited powers as president.

Long continued planning for his presidency, even writing a book entitled My First Days in the White House. His rising popularity horrified Nobel Prize–winning author Sinclair Lewis, who wrote the play It Can’t Happen Here, which depicted a populist politician being elected president before becoming a Nazi-like dictator. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist and novelist Katherine Anne Porter openly called Long “the worst sort of Fascist demagogue.”

Before Long could begin his campaign, however, he was assassinated by a crazed physician.

1Aaron Burr

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Photo credit: John Vanderlyn

Aaron Burr is well-known for his killing of Alexander Hamilton in an 1804 duel. But what is forgotten about Burr is what happened next: his attempt to found his own empire and betray his nation.

After Hamilton’s death, Burr remained vice president. When President Thomas Jefferson’s first term ended in 1805 and Burr was replaced with George Clinton, Burr decided to look to the West for his future. He soon hatched a plot to use a small army to seize a sizable part of the Louisiana Territory and Mexico and declare himself emperor. He contacted Anthony Merry, the British minister to the United States, about the possibility of Britain helping him conquer the land. Burr also conspired with James Wilkinson, the senior officer of the US Army, who ultimately double-crossed Burr.

After Wilkinson began to believe that Burr’s plan would fail, Wilkinson sent a letter to President Jefferson proclaiming his own innocence while accusing Burr of treason. Arrested in early 1807, Burr was found “not guilty” on the grounds that he had not actually engaged in an “overt act,” which meant actually conquering land in his case.

Despite his acquittal, Burr was viewed as a traitor in the eyes of the American people. He spent the rest of his life in obscurity and died in 1836.

Comfortable Under Wear, Has Arrived And Is Just A Click Away!!!! Part III Of VII

5. These Antibacterial Underwear That Are Ideal For Working Out

Thoughtfully designed for endurance, these hipster panties are ideal for active women to stay comfortable and fresh during an invigorating workout. They’re designed with a diamond-weave breathable fabric that helps airflow travel, keeping you cool and dry. They also feature flat-lock seams, a fabric covered waistband to prevent chafing, and an antimicrobial lining that deters odor-causing bacteria. These are the perfect panties to wear on a hot day, on the dance floor, or during an energizing yoga session. Made from a soft nylon and lycra spandex blend, there’s no need to worry about comfort or freshness with these trusty mesh undies.

6. Silky High-Waisted Boxer Briefs For The Vintage Vixen

These are not your ordinary boxer briefs: With lace accented sides and a high waist that offers full coverage in the front and back, these panties are incredibly comfortable. The high-cut leg openings keep the sides from digging into the skin, plus the V-shaped lace detail is well-made and super soft, so you won’t need to worry about the fabric fraying or causing itchiness. Plus, even with their “granny panty” vibe, they’re still super sexy and come in a wide assortment of colors.

8. An Antimicrobial Thong That Is Actually Comfortable Enough To Work Out In

These activewear thongs are made with a soft, lightweight microfiber and spandex blend that feels like a second skin. With a breathable fabric, the flat-seam design eliminates any digging or cutting into the hips, stomach, and legs. As a proud owner of these panties, I can safely say these are the most comfortable thongs I’ve ever owned. While most thongs can carry bacteria from back to front, making us prone to infections, these have built-in antimicrobial protection for long-lasting freshness throughout the day. Since the fabric wicks away moisture and dries quickly, this is a great thong to wear on a hot day.

8. The Most Comfortable Panties To Wear On Your Period

There’s nothing comfortable about getting your period, but with these period panties, you can make sure your underwear is the least of your concerns. Made with a stretchy, breathable fiber that won’t add to cramps by digging into the midline, they also have mesh holes that stave off odor, as well as a leak-proof guard to keep you fresh and confident. With the combined use of a pad or tampon, it’s smooth sailing when you wear these underwear, with a waterproof fabric that will keep you from second-guessing yourself. As far as period panties go, these ones have a substantial backing from devout customers that are finally experiencing leak-free days.

Bustle may receive a portion of sales from products purchased from this article, which was created independently from Bustle’s editorial and sales departments.

 

Mans Options

How To Pick An Underwear Style

Of all the seminal moments in a man’s life – graduations, weddings, the first curled fist of your child around your little finger – none means more than the first time he chooses his own underwear.

But what worked for prepubescent you isn’t your best choice now. Your body’s changed. Your needs have changed. Somewhere there’s a fit that’s more snug. More supportive. More flattering. Let Olivia Francis, founder of underwear experts Hamilton & Hare, be your guide to buying pants that are anything but.

Briefs

“This is the traditional Y front. It’s not for everyone but it offers great support and a neat fit. Particularly good for men with large thighs.”

Boxer Shorts

“Traditional boxer shorts offer maximum coverage, comfort and breath-ability but can often bunch and ride up so do not work well with slim trousers. [Look for] a modern, tailored cut that is much more flattering and works well with slimmer leg-wear. This means they will complement any body shape, being both flattering and extremely comfortable.”

Trunks

“These are a newer style and offer the simplest silhouette, ideal for wearing under slim-fit trousers. They sit perfectly on the hip, a little lower than other styles, and are short in the leg, cutting across mid-thigh, which make them best for men with skinnier legs.”

Take care with ‘hipster’ styles, warn the experts at M&S; they sit low, so work best with tucked in shirts. Or you risk an intimate breeze every time you bend down.

Boxer Briefs

“These are a hybrid between the traditional boxer short and the trunk – they sit on the waist and are slightly longer in the leg. Universally flattering and versatile, they’re the go-to option for most. Particularly good for those with fuller buttocks.”

 

Athletic

“If you’ve ever tried to run in baggy boxers, we sympathise. Athletic underwear comes with special requirements – it has to keep you in place and be breathable enough to cope with sweaty gym sessions.”

The Right Underwear Fabric

Three things matter in your most intimate wear: comfort, support and breath-ability. Underwear brands have long defaulted to cotton and jersey, which provide all three. But textile innovation offers the modern man new ways to keep himself cool and dry.

Cotton

An old classic. “This is a brilliant fiber for underwear,” says Francis. “It’s naturally breathable, soft and hypoallergenic.”

Jersey

It’s soft and lightweight with a natural stretch, making it the perfect choice for guys on the move. The Sunspel team advise to “opt for a stretch style, with higher elastic content for added support if you spend your weekends exercising as opposed to relaxing.”

Lyocell Jersey

Hamilton & Hare developed this exclusive spin on traditional jersey. “We use a natural paint nano-fiber and blend it with cotton for a luxurious feel – the microscopic nano-fibers offer unparalleled smoothness as well as moisture absorption.”

Continue To IV Of VII